- Soil additives and amendments (mulch, compost, etc.)
- Firewood and fuelwood
- Fuel for biomass power plants
- Solid wood products (lumber and roundwood)
- Densified fuels such as wood pellets and fire logs
- Non-structural composite products including wood/plastic lumber and wood/cement products
- Composite products such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF)
- Engineered wood products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and oriented-strand board (OSB)
- Pulp chips for paper products
- Organic chemicals including alcohol (ethanol, methanol), cellulose-based compounds, turpentine, tannins, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and the basic building blocks for many plastics
Technological feasible does not equate to economic reality. Woody biomass will only be used for higher value products if the quality of the raw material is as good as that currently being used, or if it can be provided at lower cost and still produce a product of acceptable quality.
Therefore, adding value to woody biomass is challenging not because of technological challenges but because of the low value and low quality of the material relative to biomass from other sources.