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peer-reviewed research article

Large bugs damage pistachio nuts most severely during midseason

authors

Kent M Daane, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University)
Glenn Y Yokota, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University)
Rodrigo Krugner, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University)
Shawn A Steffan, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University)
Paul G da Silva, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (and currently is Associate Professor, College of Marin)
Robert H Beede, UCCE Kings County
Walter J Bentley, UC Statewide IPM Program, UC Kearney Agricultural Center
Gary B Weinberger, Weinberger & Associates, Visalia. We thank the California Pistachio Commission, UC Statewide IPM Program and Western Region SARE program for funding

publication information

California Agriculture 59(2):95-102. DOI: 10.3733/ca.v059n02p95. April-June 2005.

abstract

“Large bug” damage to pistachio nuts varies by season, as well as among insect species and development stages, with larger bugs typically causing more damage than smaller bugs. We investigated pistachio damage by three large bug species (leaffooted bug, redshouldered stink bug and flat green stink bug) at different development stages and throughout the season, using field surveys and cage studies. Before fruit set occurs in June, most damaged nuts are dropped from the cluster without reducing fruit load. The midseason period (June to July) is the most critical because the damaged nuts remain in the cluster. After shell hardening, the kernel is largely protected from bug feeding.

author affiliations

K.M. Daane is Associate UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE) Specialist, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University);; G.Y. Yokota, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University);; R. Krugner, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University);; S.A. Steffan were Staff Research Associates, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (currently, Krugner is Graduate Student, UC Riverside, and Steffan is Project Manager, Utah State University);; P.G. da Silva was Postgraduate Student, Division of Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (and currently is Associate Professor, College of Marin); R.H. Beede is Farm Advisor, UCCE Kings County; W.J. Bentley is Areawide Farm Advisor, UC Statewide IPM Program, UC Kearney Agricultural Center; G.B. Weinberger is owner, Weinberger & Associates, Visalia. We thank the California Pistachio Commission, UC Statewide IPM Program and Western Region SARE program for funding;

author notes

Louise Ferguson, UCCE Specialist, Department of Pomology, UC Davis, for technical advice with pomology horticulture. Farm managers at Sherman Thomas Ranch, Nichols Farm, Agri-World and Paramount Farms provided field sites. Comments from two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the manuscript.

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