District pipe systems: Concrete irrigation systems compared in study of efficiency of open, closed, and semi-closed types
Arthur F. Pillsbury, University of California College of Agriculture
California Agriculture 5(6):7-8. DOI: 10.3733/ca.v005n06p7.
Arthur F. Pillsbury is Associate Professor of Irrigation, University of California College of Agriculture, Los Angeles.
Not available – first paragraph follows:
Surging can' be minimized in future designs in the open system of concrete pipe irrigation but the closed and semi-closed types–where surging is no problem–have much to offer.