California Agriculture, June 1980
Volume 34, Number 6
peer-reviewed research articles
The opportunistic origin of a new citrus pest
by Arthur M. Shapiro , Kenneth K. Masuda
It prefers sweet fennel, but the anise swallowtail will quickly switch hosts and become a serious pest of citrus if no fennel is available. Control by trap-cropping is suggested.
Spring planting is best for oilseed sunflower
by Benjamin H. Beard , Karl H. Ingebretsen
Plantings in April or May gave the highest seed production and oil content in tests with new oil-type sunflowers.
Fuel alcohol from biomass
by Robert G. Curley
Ethyl alcohol from plant material may eventually replace some of the petroleum now used for fuel. Problems and potentials are discussed in this series of articles.
Harvesting crop residues for alcohol production
by George E. Miller
Not available – first paragraph follows: An estimated 7 to 15 percent of energy now used in California could come from cellulosic biomass, if fully utilized. From 20 to 35 million tons of this underutilized residue from forest and farming operations are produced annually in California; quantities from biomass farming on underutilized land would be substantially larger but are unknown at this time.
Energy analysis for ethanol
by John M. Krochta
Not available – first paragraph follows: A major question in the production and use of fuel-grade ethanol is whether or not it yields a net energy gain after accounting for the fossil energy input required for bio-mass production, harvesting, transportation, and conversion. Two recent studies concluded that a net energy loss resulted in industrial-grade ethanol production from corn. Use of fossil fuel was assumed for all energy inputs.
Crop feedstocks for fuel alcohol production
by Roy M. Sachs
Ideally, economic analyses and decisions concerning complex agricultural-industrial systems, as represented by crops to fuel alcohol, should be made from systems in operation and not merely from computations found in this article. Currently fuel-grade, fermentation ethanol sells for about $1.75 per gallon in the United States. The computed costs in table 3 are considerably below this value and, hence, must be examined closely in systems in operation. Such important data were not available to the author at the time of manuscript preparation, and interested readers are urged to inquire further.
The distillation of alcohol for fuel
by Lynn A. Williams
Not available – first paragraph follows: Alcohols are simple chemical compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbon) chains that contain one or more added hydroxyl (hydrogen plus oxygen) groups.
Alcohol production from wood
by David L. Brink
Not available – first paragraph follows: Lignocellulose—the material forming the woody cell walls of plants—represents the single largest supply of polysaccharides (carbohydrates) produced in the plant kingdom that can be hydrolyzed to sugars and converted into fuel alcohol. Biomass materials that are preponderantly lignocellulosic include all wood residues generated in logging and sawmilling operations; prunings of orchard, vineyard, and ornamental plants; stalks of cotton plants; and stems of grasses including wheat, rice, barley, corn (stover), sugarcane (bagasse after extraction of sucrose), and bamboo.
Testing for precise sugarbeet fertilization
by F. Jackson Hills , Robert L. Sailsbery , Albert Ulrich
A combination of soil testing and sugarbeet plant analysis makes it possible to apply just enough nitrogen to achieve maximum sugar yields without wasting fertilizer.
Leafminer control increases summer squash yields
by Raj K. Sharma , Alfonso Durazo , Keith S. Mayberry
Experimental insecticide treatments provided enough leafminer control to increase yields and dollar gains per acre of summer squash-a crop grown predominantly by small farmers.
New fungicide apparently controls onion mildew
by Beth L. Teviotdale , Donald M. May , Dennis Harper , Doris Jorde
A new fungicide, Ridomil, outperformed currently registered materials in controlling downy mildew of bulb and seed onions in two years of San Joaquin Valley field trials.
editorial, news, letters & science briefs
Cooperative extension and agricultural research in the University of California
by J. B. Kendrick , David S. Saxon