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April 1974

Cover: Shady Grove Dairy liquid manure holding pond near Chino. Top photo shows soil column installation on pond floor to right, and manometer installation on levee to left, allowing monitoring of seepage. Lower photo shows soil column being probed for sampling when pond was full with 8 ft. of dairy sewage.

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California Agriculture, April 1974

Volume 28, Number 4

research articles

Insecticides and timing sprays for control of san jose scale
by R. E. Rice, J. E. Dibble, J. H. La Rue, R. A. Jones
pp3, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p3
Abstract
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SCALE INSECTS are among the most serious pests known to agriculture, and San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosas (Comstock), ranks as the primary scale pest on deciduous fruit and nut trees. It is distributed worldwide and has been collected from approximately 700 different hosts. Unlike many insect pests, San Jose scale has the ability to kill all or parts of infested trees, in addition to making infested fruit unmarketable.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Pear fire blight control tests 1973
by W. O. Reil, S. V. Thomson, M. N. Schroth, W. H. Griggs, W. J. Moller
pp4-6, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p4
Abstract
Copper compounds were the only currently registered bactericides that controlled streptomycin-resistant strains of firelight bacteria in Bartlett pear trees, but they induced considerable amounts of fruit russet. An anti-transpirant material reduced the amount of russet caused by the copper materials when applied alternately, or in conjunction with copper sprays. A new organic bactericide, MBR 10995, provided excellent control of fireblight in a limited trial but is not currently registered. Biological control of fireblight with application of bacteria antagonistic to Erwinia amylovora was somewhat effective. The efficacy of bactericides can also be determined by their effect on epiphytic populations of E. amylovora in blossoms.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Subfloor monitoring of shady grove dairy liquid manure holding pond
by J. C. Oliver, J. L. Meyer, W. C. Fairbank, J. M. Rible
pp6-7, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p6
Abstract
This report of the subfloor monitoring of the Shady Grove Dairy liquid manure holding pond near Chino offers further proof that such ponds are self-sealing and allow little or no seepage.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Climate effects on mandarins and valencia oranges
by E. M. Nauer, J. H. Goodale, L. L. Summers, W. Reuther
pp8-10, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p8
Abstract
Results reported here, along with the results of similar studies conducted both in the field and in environmentally controlled glasshouses, emphasize the importance of climate in the production of marketable citrus fruits. The most important market criteria such as size, rind color, and maturity are determined to a large degree by the climate in which the trees are grown. These data can be useful in determining the most suitable varieties for trial in new areas.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Pioneering research on aerosol application of insect pathogens
by L. A. Falcon, Ann Sorensen, N. B. Akesson
pp11-13, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p11
Abstract
Results from these initial studies into insect pathogen application demonstrated the promising potential for effective dispersal of insect pathogens with ground aerosol rigs.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Basal sprouting of fig trees controlled with naa
by S. B. Boswell, C. D. McCarty
pp14-15, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p14
Abstract
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SHOOTS SPROUTING from the basal area of the trunk are a problem in commercial fig orchards and considerable time and money is spent in removing these sprouts by hand pruning. A growth regulator spray which would prevent or retard this unwanted growth would be of economic value to fig growers.
Expanded Abstract | PDF

Editorial, News, Letters and Science briefs

EDITORIAL: Trade-offs and tomorrow
by J. B. Kendrick
pp2, doi#10.3733/ca.v028n04p2
PDF

Field testing of grape maturity

by M. A. Amerine, E. B. Roessler
pp93-114, doi#10.3733/hilg.v28n04p093
Abstract
Since harvesting grapes at the proper stage of maturity is essential to quality—whether the grapes are intended for winery, table, or raisin use—an accurate means of estimating maturity in the field is necessary. Experiments were designed to measure the reliability of three field sampling methods—individual berry, cluster, and whole vine—in order to provide a more rational basis for grower practice. The varieties tested were Semillion and Carignane in regions II, IV, and V, Thompson Seedless in regions IV and V, and Flame Tokay in region IV. The degree Balling, Abbé refractometer reading, per cent reducing sugar, per cent total acidity, and pH were determined on all samples. According to these analyses, the three methods compare very favorably. It is suggested, however; that berry sampling, since it is the simplest and most rapid of the three methods, may be the most practical.
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Field testing of grape maturity

by M. A. Amerine, E. B. Roessler
pp93-114, doi#10.3733/hilg.v28n04p093
Abstract
Since harvesting grapes at the proper stage of maturity is essential to quality—whether the grapes are intended for winery, table, or raisin use—an accurate means of estimating maturity in the field is necessary. Experiments were designed to measure the reliability of three field sampling methods—individual berry, cluster, and whole vine—in order to provide a more rational basis for grower practice. The varieties tested were Semillion and Carignane in regions II, IV, and V, Thompson Seedless in regions IV and V, and Flame Tokay in region IV. The degree Balling, Abbé refractometer reading, per cent reducing sugar, per cent total acidity, and pH were determined on all samples. According to these analyses, the three methods compare very favorably. It is suggested, however; that berry sampling, since it is the simplest and most rapid of the three methods, may be the most practical.
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