The following home garden water conservation tips were written by Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor Ben Faber. This article and other practical pieces for home gardeners can be found on this section of our website.
When to water? How much to water? These are two very important questions that need to be answered before watering lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens if we want to provide the most beneficial use of this resource. Because of variability in plant size, weather (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, clouds and fog), types of soil and water, and the method of watering, it is difficult to give one recommendation that is true for all situations. Additionally, watering plants on a fixed schedule subjects them to periods of too much water and at other times to drought, because weather and plant size change. A young avocado tree in December may use only one gallon per day while a 20-foot tree in August might use 35 gallons per day.
The following are general principles. As plants increase in size, rooting becomes deeper, and the frequency of waterings can be decreased because more water is stored in the larger root zone. The time to water can be determined by the appearance of the plant, by the soil moisture content, or by estimating the amount of water used since the last irrigation.
. In most cases, plants can wilt slightly at midday before it is necessary to apply water the following day. Alternatively, i if you dig with a trowel or shovel down to 1 ft depth and find the soil is dry, then this might be used as an indicator of the time to water.
Soils and Water
In similar climates, water use by plants generally is the same regardless of the soil from which it is taken; however, soil variability is important in watering. A sandy soil requires more frequent, short watering than a clay soil to prevent water loss beneath the root zone. With heavy soils, it is best to water less frequently because these soils will hold more water. Heavy soils typically do not absorb water rapidly, so to avoid runoff it may be necessary to split the watering times into two or more periods. Adding organic matter to clay and sandy soils will increase the rate of water penetration in day soils and the water-holding capacity of sandy soils.
Other than seedlings, which are shallow-rooted, water should be supplied to a minimum depth of 1 ft in the soil (approximately 1 inch depth of water on the surface of the soil will infiltrate down to 1 ft). An area 10 ft x 10 ft will require about 62 gallons of water to filter down to 1 ft. This would be similar to 1 inch of rain or lawn sprinkling on the same 100 sq. ft. Infrequent but deeper watering will result in a deeper rooting system, and the plant will be better able to sustain periods of high water demand. Less frequent watering will also minimize loss of water by evaporation from the soil surface.
During or after a watering, the depth to which soil moisture has been restored can be determined by probing the soil with a metal rod not more than 3/16 inch in diameter. A big screwdriver is also a good tool for probing. The force needed to push the probe will increase suddenly when it reaches dry soil. The length of time of sprinkler operation or amount of applied water that was used to achieve a certain soil depth can then be used as a standard for future waterings.
Trees and Shrubs
In a winter with adequate rainfall, the whole root zone is filled with water near the end of the rainy season; however, in dry winters, plants need supplemental watering. The amount of water to apply is the amount required to replace the water taken from the soil by roots and lost by evaporation from the soil surface since the last rainfall or watering. Water to a depth of 2 ft (approximately 2 inches of water or 125 gallons per 100 sq. ft) under the drip line (canopy) of the tree or shrub. With deeper-rooted trees, for every third watering, apply twice as much, or four inches (250 gallons per 100 sq. ft). This will ensure that the deeper roots will be maintained and that various salts in the water are leached from around the roots.
Ideally, water applied to trees and shrubs should be ponded at the site by building berms around the plant. This insures that the applied water goes directly to the plant and is not wasted. It also makes it possible to visualize 2 inches of applied water. For trees it is best to build two berms: one 6 inches high, located in a 1 ft radius around the trunk and a second following the drip line of the tree. The interior berm is created to prevent diseases caused by water standing around the trunk of a tree or shrub. For trees located in lawns,
&water bubbler at the base of the tree can be used to deep water the tree, without applying excess to the lawn.
Because roots of trees and shrubs often extend in all directions far beyond their longest branches and comingle, it may not make sense to water them individually. A more practical procedure may be to create dikes around a group of these plants. The total impounded area of each basin should not be greater than 50 sq. ft and the surface within should be as level as possible. The 50-sq. ft area and levelness will encourage an even distribution of water to the various plants.
Depending on the hose diameter and water pressure, many household hoses apply about 5 gallons per minute. So to apply water with a subsoil irrigator to a tree with a 10-ft-diameter canopy, it is necessary to run the water for 25 minutes (2 inches of water on 100 sq. ft = 125 gallons). The bubbler should be moved every five to ten minutes around the tree so that all the root zone is watered. Since the 5-gallon-per-minute rate is an average, one’s own situation can be measured by filling a five-gallon bucket with your hose and timing how long it takes to fill.
Vegetables and Flowers
Vegetables or flowers can be grown in sunken beds or level basins that can be flooded in the same fashion as trees and shrubs. Sunken beds should not be larger than 50 sq. feet so that they can be filled rapidly to achieve uniformity with the depth of water to be applied. Furrows also can be used in growing flowers and vegetables. Spacing of the furrows should be such that water from the furrows wets the whole bed. The spacing of furrows will vary with soil type. Sandy soils need closer spacing to avoid loss of water out of the root zone when trying to wet the whole bed, while clay soils can have wider spacing. The amount of water applied by furrows is the amount needed to move across to the center of the bed. By probing with a stick or trowel in the center of the bed, it is possible to determine the depth of water and the amount of time needed to continue to run the water. Canvas soaker hose or drip tape are also good ways to water beds. The length of time to run them can be determined by using the calculation used for trees or simply by probing the soil to find the depth of water infiltrated.
Studies by the University of California at Riverside have demonstrated that many turf grass species can get by with as little as 60% of optimum watering with little stress. Most lawns have areas that dry sooner than other parts of the lawn. Let these areas be your indicator for watering the rest of the lawn. When the grass in the dry area becomes dull colored and does not spring back when stepped on, water the entire lawn. The amount or length of water application should be enough so that a stiff metal rod or screwdriver can be pushed 1 ft into the soil. This depth for most soil textures represents about 1 inch of rain. Alternatively, cans can be set out in the lawn, the system turned on, and the length of time it takes to collect an average of 1 inch of water can be used in subsequent waterings. This test will also show how evenly water is being applied and can suggest ways to correct sprinkler performance.
Sprinklers should be run so that no runoff occurs. If water has not penetrated to 1 ft and runoff occurs, turn the system off for an hour then turn it back on to apply the needed amount. Spading or aerating lawns can help water penetration.
Some Do’s and Don’ts
Select plants that are adapted to warmer, drier climates.
Adjust sprinklers for uniform water distribution.
Fix leaky faucets and lines.
Water early in the day to reduce evaporative loss.
Mulch beds to reduce evaporation from the soil surface..
Shelter container plants from winds.
Don’t sprinkle during windy or hot periods of the day.
Don’t put the water on the street and sidewalk; put it on the plants.
Don’t use softened water (sodium treated), if it can be avoided; it will harm most plants.
Don’t put sprinklers on a timer that is not adjusted with the weather; failure to adjust your timer assures you of wasting water.
Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor, Ben Faber shares with us his knowledge of avocados.
The avocado is an unusual beast in many ways. And flowering is no exception. It follows what is called synchronous dichogamy. The flower has both male and female parts, but those portions open at different times, opening first as female, closing and then opening as a male. It does this over two days, so in effect it can not pollinate itself.
To make it more interesting there are what are called A and B varieties. These varieties open and close in a different pattern, so that there is some overlap between the male stage of one variety and the female stage of another variety. This is how you get cross pollination.
This sounds really good as a model, but most avocados haven’t read the book: for a given variety, there are always some laggards with both female and male stages on the same tree.
Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor Ben Faber shares with us some of his citrus tree knowledge.
Heat affects different types and varieties of citrus differently. Heat determines when fruit ripens and how sweet it will be. Grapefruit has one of the highest heat requirements of all citrus. Grown along the coast it will be sour, but in the Central Valley it can be decidedly sweet. A Pixie mandarin along the coast will be 6-8 weeks later in ripening than the Valley and will hang on the tree much longer. Acid fruits like lemon and ‘Bearss’ lime have low heat requirements and are well adapted to the coast. The everblooming characteristics of lemons and limes are accentuated along the coast where there may be continuous cropping with lemon blooms year round.
High temperatures can have a negative effect on citrus. Coastal citrus may suddenly drop fruit when temperatures swing from the cool 60’s to the 90’s as often happens with Santa Ana conditions. Sudden warm weather can cause fruit to split, induce flower and leaf drop, and cause sudden burn to both the fruit and tree. These problems are compounded by dry soil moisture and problems can be reduced if there is adequate moisture present during the heat wave. In hot environments, some citrus like navels produce less fruit.
The Ventura County UCCE website includes a history section. One fun and educational part of the section is the History of Ventura and Oxnard slide show, put together by our own Steve Griffin.
The photos cover the mid 1800’s through the early 1900’s. Agriculture’s prominence in early county life is clear. While looking at photos of both cities downtown areas 100 years ago and more it is interesting to see what remains and what has changed.
The slide show is best viewed through the internet explorer browser and can be found by following this link.
In addition to the online photos, our office has many other historical photos not yet online. They cover larger sections of the county and include: 4-H meetings with women in long skirts and ruffled shirts, lush fields in places that have houses for decades, photos of old research and irrigation projects, and generally show that while much has changed, much remains the same.
These photos are available for viewing. Please contact our office if interested to set up an appointment.
One of the online images, they are much clearer when viewed from the slide show.
I am sorry to have to report that we have another potential ecological and economic disaster coming our way. Much like the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing disease, this new threat is also a pest-disease complex.
Laurel Wilt Disease (LW) is caused by a fungus, which is carried by the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (RAB). These beetles typically attack trees under stress (e.g. drought). The beetle bores into a tree carrying the fungus. The fungus in turn digests the wood disrupting the flow of water and nutrients. As the tree weakens it becomes more attractive to the RAB and is used for brood rearing and is attacked in mass. It only takes one beetle to cause the infection. Once a tree is infected it takes about 6 months to collapse. Unfortunately one of the hosts for the RAB is the avocado tree.
The initial detection of this disease in the US was found May 2002 in Port Wentworth (Savannah), Georgia. It has spread mainly along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida as of 2008. It is currently in the avocado orchards around Miami.
Much research is being done to help stop this destructive disease. While resistant trees are the subject of much of the research, we can all do our part to help stop the spread of the disease. This can be done in the following ways:
- Report any suspicious laurel trees to CDFA
- Voluntarily remove and destroy the tree
- Don’t move any symptomatic host wood from a site
- Don’t chip dead wood and use it as mulch around the yard
- For now, don’t purchase or obtain native Lauracae plants and avocado trees from an area known positive for the RAB-LW
- Leaving the tree in place will increase the RAB-LW infestations throughout your local area.
- Controlling the beetle may be impractical in the home landscape – it only takes 1 beetle to infest a tree.
Current control strategies are as follows:
Options for dooryard avocado trees
- Cut and burn the tree – not recommended because of the danger of burning and the requirement for burn permits, and various ordinances of local, state and federal agencies.
- Cut the tree down to the ground.
- Pile the wood or chip the wood of the tree, pile it on top of the tree stump and tarp this pile of wood to the ground; essentially composting the infested remains of the tree in-place
- Adding biosolids (e.g., manure), fertilizer, and water will speed the decomposition process
- Spray your chainsaws with bleach and water to disinfect it against the possibility of spreading LW fungus to other susceptible host trees.